How do I play these rhythms on zills/"finger cymbals"/sagat?
Q: What's in a name? ( A note on naming conventions )
I use names for these rhythms which tend to be accepted among
the community of drummers that I have known and the sparse
documentation that exists on this (extremely folk) tradition. I
have tried to note variations of name. Also note that many of
the names are transliterated from some language that doesn't use
roman letters so spelling may vary. Please let me know if you
know of other names or local traditions.
For Arabic names I've tried to use a consistent transliteration
that uses capital consonants for emphatic sounds and double
vowels for long vowels. If you are aware of misspellings of the
Arabic, please do let me know.
For Greek and Balkan names I've tried to use commonly accepted
transliterations and spellings.
In many cases the names that are used in practice are
inconsistent. Folk musicians in many of the cultures of these
areas often do not even name rhythms -- they simply know what
rhythm goes with what song and play it.
Q: What's the deal with 4/4, 6/8?
( Time Signatures, Music Theory )
For a modern western percussionist (or musician considering
rhythm) the most important thing is how many beats there are to
a measure. That is: modern musicians break music down into
repeating segments of the same length called "measures". The
measures are then broken down into a fixed number of possible
divisions. When you see that some song is in "6/8" -- that
means that it is divided into measures that contain six "eighth"
notes. The whole modern world doesn't use this method (Balkan folk musicians, for instance, have a
pulse-length based system) and it was certainly not used
when much Middle Eastern music was formulated (more on this
subject below). I've tried to use time notations that would be
familiar to western musicians with some notation to show
variations such as shortened segments.
Q: Wait! I can't read music! ( Notation )
Please check out another version of this page
that does not use modern western musical notation.
I assume you know how to hit the drum -- if not I will have a
section on that when I get time -- I do suggest, however, that
if you are interested in playing in the traditional style you
find a teacher or a good player and get them to give you a
first lesson. This will hopefully save you from developing bad
In "traditional" Arabic Tabla/Darabuka, TEK and KA may be played
with either hand and represent different sounds: TEK indicates
either the accented strike or possibly the resonant (as opposed
to damped) high-pitched sound -- depending on your
methodology. However many people find it easier to learn (and
teach) by using the traditional names to indicate the preferred
hand to strike with.
Note that it almost doesn't matter which hand you strike with as
long as you are making the right sound -- however by putting the
accents on the dominant hand and following the notation for
suggested hands you will probably wind up with a more
"traditional sound" to your playing.
There are many forms of rhythm notation -- the most popular is
standard western musical notation. I find that difficult to
read, if you do please check out the more
compact text version of this page.
Accents are noted above the note and suggested hand below the
bar. Low notes (DUM) are the lower bar and high notes (TEK, KA)
the upper. Unaccented strikes are open. Normally accented
strikes are usually increased in volume and may be a different
tone-style (deadened or closed). The special accent (a little
X) indicates a particularly accented strike -- usually a closed,
stopped, or deadened tone.
Q: What difference does a "rest" make anyway?
To a drummer, I guess the answer could be "not much".
A "rest" in music is a space for a note that is not played.
On many other instruments a note can be sustained, and there is
a significant difference in playing "a note, a rest, and another
note" and "a long note and then another note". On a drum you
don't have much choice about how long the sustain on your "note"
is, but the combinations of rests versus sustained notes may
give some indications about how the rhythm should be ornamented
or filled. Therefore there are a few rhythms that seem very
different to melodists but somewhat the same for the drummer.
Q: Where did all of this tradition come from?
( A Grossly Over-simplified Bit of Percussion History )
(If you would like a deeper look into this: stay tuned -- I'm trying
to get time to write a better essay -- or start by reading any
Arabic music book by Henry George Farmer. And don't say I didn't
warn you -- he's hard to read -- not because he is a bad writer, but
because his books are academic and full of facts and rather complex
arguments attempting to reconstruct a lot of Arabic musical
history and theory.)
The earliest recorded history of music and rhythm we get from
ancient Greece. Greek writers on the subject were fairly technical,
but it seems that not much about rhythmic structure was formalized.
We do know that they tended to use a system that had two values for
time (long and short) where the "long" was from one and a half to
two times longer than the short. Musical phrases were built of
patterns of long and short -- sometimes these patterns repeated.
We only know as much as we do about early Greek music because Middle
Eastern (arabic speaking) scholars studied and preserved
(translated) early Greek writings. The Arabic music/rhythm tradition
begins in the caravan song -- the vocal music of the nomad. Often a
simple percussion instrument (for instance a stick) was used to beat
out accents. As the nomadic life was exchanged for urban life new
instruments were developed, poetic form matured and scholars studied
earlier Greek works, a rhythmic method developed with a basis in
long and short syllables(durations) and accent patterns based on
poetic meter. As poems tended to repeat the notion of a larger
repeating rhythmic cycle emerged.
As the Arabic speaking empire expanded, matured and moved through
the greater Middle East and through North Africa into modern Spain
and Portugal, it brought an academic attitude toward music. Local
integrated and new forms and instruments developed. The music
traditions of North Africa are still today heavily influenced by
Arabic empire roots rather than by the rest of mainland Africa.
That is the music is primarily monotonal and of simple rhythm.
Polyrhythm and harmony are almost non-existent in Middle Eastern
music. That does not mean by any measure that the music is
simple. The "interesting" and unique aspects of each performance
come from the "ornamentation" of the tune by each instrument rather
than from the "merging" of various tones and times that is formed by
harmony and polyrhythm. The Arabic (and Mediterranean) music
tradition tends to be based on the soloist or small ensemble -- a
natural outgrowth of folk groups and a nomadic bard tradition.
An interesting side note: Islamic tradition holds the musical arts
in an odd dichotomy. Many Islamic fundamentalists have held that
music for pleasure (rather than to worship or to declare the glory
of Allah) is a sinful distraction -- however throughout history
Islamic rulers (and no doubt the general populace) tended to
patronize the musical arts.
Khalifates with courts in the Maghreb developed forms of stylized
concerts that formalized many new musical as well as rhythmic
structures including a complex style of concert called the "nuba".
This presence in Europe, along with the cultural interaction during
the crusades, was responsible for many Middle Eastern instruments
and musical forms finding their way into Europe. For instance I've
heard people argue that the frame drum (extremely popular in North
Africa throughout history) found it's way into Ireland as the
bodhran this way -- this is probably apocryphal I'm not aware of
anything but speculation to support the theory.
There are numerous problems for modern students attempting to study
early Middle Eastern music: Arabic writers tend to describe such
things and music and dance rather poetically (in terms of
impressions and feelings and effect on audience) rather than give
much technical detail of form or technique. Apparently there was no
standardized musical notation -- though Middle Eastern scholars were
impressed by western notational methods (probably "discovered" by
the Middle East around the time of the crusades), these methods did
not lend themselves well to representing the more varied (in terms
of tone and rhythm) music of the Middle East. Studying rhythmic
modes is even more difficult -- very little rhythmic notation
exists, even for songs that are otherwise quite well documented.
Apparently either (as in many oral traditions) the rhythmic modes
were so well known scholars did not bother to document them or they
could find no good method for doing so.
Attempts were made by a number of Middle Eastern scholars to
document their highly oral musical traditions; unfortunately most of
these documents are not available today -- although there are many
references to them in historical works. The Mongul invasions of the
'Abbasid empire and sacking of such academic centers as Baghdad in 1258
destroyed most of the relevant academic documents (not to mention
the scholars!). Safi-al-Din, the author of two of the oldest surviving
technical texts on music was one of the few who barely escaped the
purge and wound up working in the Mongul court.
Additionally there is a long standing division
between folk and academic (classical) music in Arabic tradition -- I
think most scholars found it beneath them to study (or at least
write about) folk music.
As the Turkish/Ottoman empire rose out of the remains of the Arabic
Khalifates they adopted the court music forms of the Arabs and also
further developed the "marching military band" that the Arabs had
found useful in intimidating their enemies. These were loud affairs
consisting of many percussion instruments, horns, and loud reeds.
In this context loud outdoor instruments and music were developed,
while the complex court musical scene fostered more complex musical
and rhythmic forms.
Modern Middle Eastern music is mishmash of local folk traditions,
the remains of ancient classical forms, and aspects of western
popular and sometimes classical music. As the Ottoman empire's
influence gave way to western influence during the first part of the
20th century, Egyptian composers developed a lot of music that is a
fusion of western classical form with middle eastern music. This
movement was responsible for bringing orchestra style ensembles and
harmonic music to the middle eastern mix. In terms of rhythmic
elements it seems that a lot of diversity has been lost, odd or
complex rhythmic forms have been discarded or lost, in favor of more
westernized, even-counted measures. Modern (traditional) Persian
music, for instance rarely has rhythms that are not cycles of 2, 4,
or 6 beats while historical records seem to indicate that much
longer cycles were common in the past.
Recently, during the rise of the oil economies (late 20th century),
cheap labor brought from Africa has brought a bit of central African
polyrhythmic tradition to the Middle East -- especially to areas in
the Persian Gulf.
See below for more technical analysis of historical sources.
Q: So I want to learn some rhythms. Where do we start?
Let's start with a rhythm called "maqsuum". This rhythm is common and
widespread -- you will find it in music throughout the Middle East and
The simple Maqsum is the basis of many rhythms and is especially
important in modern and folk Egyptian rhythm. If you listen to Middle
Eastern percussion accompanying music you will often hear the
distinctive [DT-TD-T-] of the Maqsum. I've
heard Hossam Ramzy exaggerate that maqsum is the basis of all Egyptian
rhythm. The simple maqsum and all the ways in which it can be
embellished really demonstrates the Middle Eastern percussion
tradition. The Middle Eastern percussion instruments are responsible
for laying out the meter of a song but there is also room for plenty
of expression by each individual instrument. In parts of the Mahgreb
(e.g. Tunisia) this family of rhythms may be called "Duyek".
"baladii", which is a more folksy version of the basic Middle Eastern
"maqsuum", is characterized by the familiar two DUMs that lead the
phrase. It is probably more properly called "maSmuudii saghiir"
("small maSmuudii") since it has the "maSmuudii" accent and phrase but
is played in 4 beats rather than 8. Some say that to play it with the
traditional "feel" the accents (after the first) should lag
slightly. The rhythm is generally known as "baladii" (beledi, baladi,
balady) among the American belly dance community. The word "baladii"
means "of the country" or "old fashion" and, I've heard, implies (in
Egypt) a bit of a "hick-ness" or folk-ness. This rhythm is very
typical (to the point of overuse) for modern belly dance, but the
double-DUMs tend to drown out melodic accompaniment -- therefore when
playing with a subtle melodic instrument that cannot easily be heard,
a simpler version of "maqsuum" is usually preferred. "baladii" is
usually played more slowly that a 4/4 "maqsuum".
An evenly filled version of a rhythm (such as the last baladii
variation above) is often called a "walking" rhythm due to its even
walking maqsuum 4/4
The couple of beats you are finding near the end of some of these
variations are known as a "bridge" or "chain" -- they are not basic to
the rhythm, but are often played as a pick up into the next measure.
"sayyidii" (saidii, saiidii) is another rhythm of the maqsuum family.
A sayyidii is made by doubling the middle DUM. It has a different
flavor of fill and accent, is popular in upper Egypt (remember "upper"
Egypt is in the south). It is similar to baladii, usually played fast,
upbeat and powerfully. It is traditionally used for the Tahtib (a
man's ritual "stick dance") as well as belly dance (especially the
cane dance -- which is partially a parody of the man's version). I've
also heard this rhythm called "Ghawazee" since these dance forms, and
a particular style of belly dance using this form of rhythm, are
popular among the Egyptian Ghawazee. This form may also be called
Note that, although the rhythm theoretically has a DUM at the beginning,
after the initial cycle of the rhythm that beat it is often alternatively
played as a TEK. This tends to drag the second TEK of the rhythm earlier
and emphasize the double-DUM part.
|[MIDI]||syncopated at the beginning|
Yet another variation of a maqsum with different accent, Sombati is used
during taaqasiim or for vocal accompaniment.
|[MIDI]||like double-time cifitelli|
|[MIDI]||used to have this version here from someplace but I think the syncopation is wrong|
I've heard some Egyptians refer to the simple maqsuum as "waaHida wa
niSf". Or possibly "waaHida wa noSS" (half wahida) -- possibly because
it (at least theoretically) derives from the simple form of the
first half of "waaHida".
"waaHid" means "one" in Arabic. These rhythms are so called because
they have a single accent (DUM) at the beginning. A particular,
"waaHida sayyAra" is also called "Libi" by Egyptians due to its
apparent modern popularity in Libya. "waaHida" is often used during
the vocal/legatto parts of songs -- the single accent makes it easy
for the drum to follow the long, sometimes stretched syllables of this
part of the song where the vocallist or instrumental soloist is
improvising. The rhythm part accents the cycle/measure boundary and
follows the melody as the measure is stretched or shortened.
The "waaHida", since it is primarily just an initial accent with
varying fill, can be used to make transitions between rhythms of
various counts and fills (i.e. can be used as a "break").
"bambii" is a modern rhythm similar to a waaHida that has a 3 DUM
sequence either by finishing waaHida with 2 DUMs or rotating it so
that the 3 are at the beginning.
Notice how the "saghiira" variation of "waaHida" leaves the 3rd beat
empty. This seems a strange accent pattern -- more on
If you take this "waaHida" and finish with another common 4 beat
segment (making an 8),you have another rhythm, "ciftitelli", that is
considered a Turkish or Greek rhythm. It is presumably named after the
Turkish instrument that has strings tuned an octave apart.
It is, at its basis (if you cross your eyes a lot), similar to a
maqsuum. It is usually filled as an 8-beat rhythm and has a much
different feel. It is common in Turkish (and other) belly dance --
usually it is play moderately slowly and preferably (I think) with a
lot of space (i.e. not all "filled in"). Drummers tend to have fun
filling in the end of the rhythm in various, sometimes unexpected,
ways. It is sometimes used to accompany a taaqasiim (melodic
improvisation). Some drummers (confusingly) call the rhythm
"taa-qa-siim". It is very confusing because a very similar Arabic
word "taq-sim" means "split" or "divided" and can be used to refer
generally to "maqsuum".
Egyptians tend to play simpler version of Ciftetelli than
you might find in Turkey and call it "waaHida taaqasiim" or
maybe "waaHida kabiir".
ciftitelli (shiftaatellii) 8/4
Often rhythms are combined like this, or have versions that are half
or twice as long. The basic maqsuum played half as quickly is known
The Masmoudi (I've reverted to the common transliteration) rhythm is
characteristically a joining of two 4-beat phrases. Sometimes it is
called "Masmoudi kabiir(big)" to differentiate it from a 4-beat rhythm
(Masmoudi saghiir). Often the first phrase has 2 leading beats. One of
these versions is sometimes called "warring masmoudi" -- supposedly it
sounds like a man and woman arguing. A 3 leading beat version is
called "walking masmoudi" -- the even stride making it particularly
suited for marching. Masmoudi's are fairly common in belly dance
music -- historically they are also used in muwashashat -- they are
particularly percussion-intense and make a quite convenient and
recognizable rhythm in which a dancer can accent a dance.
This, as I said, is at its core the same rhythm as maqsum but it is
filled as an 8 rather than a four and played more slowly. Generally
speaking Masmoudi's sound big (kabiir) and the maqsums quick and nimble
There is some evidence that the masmoudi rhythms were used in early
muwashahat music and have a more art-music basis than the maqsum which
is currently found in a lot of folk songs.
The Masmouda are one of the three main groups of Berbers in
Morocco. They live west of the Rif and Grand and Middle Atlas in
Morocco. "Masmouda" may also be used to refer to the region.
A maqsuum played as a 2 beat rhythm is called "falaahii". It is
usually very fast and often evenly filled. It is a common folk
version used for dance ("falaah" is another word for country-folk or
peasant). It is common in upper Egypt. It is usually played about
twice as fast as a maqsum and therefore is often considered a 2 beat
rhythm -- played more slowly (as a 4) it is the "walking maqsuum"
Ayyuub is similar. It is a common and fairly simple 2/4 rhythm. It is
played in areas of the Middle East from Turkey through to Egypt. It is
used in a slow form for a tribal north African (Egyptian) trance dance
known as the Zar (the rhythm is sometimes called "Zar") -- toward the
west (Morocco) these same sorts of trance dances are generally done to
a 6 beat rhythm. Ayyuub is also quite common at a faster (or much
faster) pace in belly dance music and music for folk line dances. Some
say that Ayyuub is supposed to sound like a camel walking. Bayou is a
rhythm with the same time pattern but has a double DUM and is usually
played more slowly -- it is often used in belly dance drum solos.
If you exchange the fundamental DUMs and TEKs in ayyuub you have
another rhythm: karAtshi (Karatchi). Karatchi is a fast 2/4. Note
that the second DUM somehow comes out less accented than the other
accented beats. It is used in modern Egyptian music and sometimes
alternated with similar rhythms as a part of a song. Hossam Ramzy says
of Karatchi: "From the word 'Karatchi' you can tell that the next
rhythm is not Egyptian. it's also very unusual because it starts with
a TAK, which is the treble beat rather than the DOM, which is the bass
beat. However it is widely used in Egyptian music and North African
Here are a couple of other simple 2 and 4 beat rhythms. "vox" or "foks"
(could it be "fox", and named after the "foxtrot"?) is very simple 2
(essentially a march -- probably inspired by western music) often
accented in sets of 4 or 8. Used in modern Egyptian compositions. Used
by Egyptian composer Mohamed Abdel Wahab.
"Jerk" is a Modern Nubian rhythm inspired by a dance of the same
name. (Similar to Samba?) In Egyptian songs (e.g. Fi Yom Wi Leyla)
I've heard the double-Dums very close together -- although someone
told me that Souhail Kaspar (a Lebonese teacher in California) taught
them the less syncopated (second) version below.
Conga Masri is another simple rhythm that seems particularly popular among the
South American belly dance crowd:
conga masri/congo masri 4/4
Bolero and a very similar rhythm, Rhumba, are used in many places in
the Middle East. Bolero is usually played more slowly and often with a
sort of triplet near the beginning -- it is used to accompany songs
like "Erev Shel Shoshanim" and "Miserlu". Rhumba is often played
almost twice as fast (Rihlat El Ghawzia by Hossam Shaker). Although
fundamentally these are 3-3-2 rhythms (like malfuf/waaHida saghiira)
-- the feeling is rather different. This family of rhythms (it's
ancestors) and variations were probably brought to Spain by Middle
Eastern musicians (and gypsies?), adopted into Latin music and
probably re-introduced in various ways into modern Middle Eastern tunes.
"zaffah" is a rhythm used in the Egyptian wedding processional. Its
basic nature is that of a march. It is used in the wedding
processional itself and also sometimes for belly dances that are
reminiscent of these events. (Note that the related "candelabra dance"
is usually done to a more up-beat 2 or 4 beat rhythm --
e.g. Saidi). It may also be called "Murrabba Jaza'ira".
zaffah 4/4 (or 8/4)
|[MIDI]||Hossam Ramzy's "Big Zaffa"|
Q: OK, I've got that. What's next? ( Middle Eastern rhythm theory and more rhythms )
Now that we've discussed a few rhythms, let's back up a bit.
So far I presented these rhythms in a very western way -- as evenly
divided "measures" of notes. Historically and traditionally (even now
in some folk music traditions) this sense of meter or measure is much
less important. As I mentioned the ancient Greeks, for instance, had
only a sense of stringing numbers of longer or shorter beats
together. Repeating cycles were because of the song, not because there
was a particular standard length of measure. The Arabic tradition
follows to some extent, as does the modern Balkan music.
Sometimes interpreting a folk rhythm in our modern western musical
context is a challenge...
Modern Middle Eastern and Greek musicians tend to approximate the
western method of breaking down rhythms down by measures. The number
of beats per measure (whether played or not) is important. Measures
are made up of groups of 2 or 3 beats (or more) -- usually the first
beat of these groups is the important one (that is the one accented or
played more fundamentally than the others). Historically the
repeating pattern was probably stressed and the sense of a fixed
measure was probably weaker. Certainly it is still true in much
modern music that the western notation does not capture the subtle
timing and syncopation that might be important in a rhythm.
Recall the version of waaHida that has what we thought was a strange
accent pattern -- leaving out the accent right in the middle of the
waaHida saghiira 4/4
More traditionally this rhythm would be broken into segments of 2s and
3s. It would be 3+3+2 in this case:
1-2-3 1-2-3 1-2 |
3 + 3 + 2
You might see it written indicating the segment breaks:
There are a number of rhythms of this form where 8 beats are divided
3+3+2 to be found in the music of the Middle East and Mediterranean.
The Macedonian gypsy (Romany) version is called "cocek" (CHO-CHEK) and
has a spacey swing to it. In other areas of Greece these rhythms are
used to accompany many songs and line dances and tend to be known as
"syrto" (which is the name of a particular line dance, and also is
used to describe the style of music). Syrto's tend to rock
back-and-forth on alternating measures changing accent slightly (or
dramatically) and sometimes are far from "straight" -- being pulled
back sometimes to almost a 7-beat.
In the gulf region (Saudi Arabia) this type of rhythm is called
"sa`udI" (Saudi) or "khaliijii" and is played more slowly and less
filled with DUMs on both 1 and 3. It is sometimes played
polyrhythmically with other 8-beat rhythms e.g. "karaatshii"
(Karatshi) -- polyrhythm being an oddity in Middle Eastern
music. Apparently this is a fairly modern musical trend influenced by
workers imported from other countries (especially from continental
Africa) to support the oil economy.
In Egypt and Lebanon this rhythm is called "malfuuf" or "laf" and is
more filled and often accented -- most often with a DUM only on
1. "malfuuf" is used to accompany line dances and also used in more
modern, popular music.
Western musicians would count many of these rhythms a 2, since the
music tends to swing in and out finding accents on the first beat and
then on "everything else".
"Muwashshat" is a form of spoken/sung Arabic poetry.
Ali Jihad Racy and Jack Logan, Ph.D. in Arab Music : "Moorish Spain
also witnessed the development of a literary-musical form that
utilized romantic subject matter and featured strophic texts with
refrains, in contrast to the classical Arabic qasidah, which followed
a continuous flow of lines or of couplets using a single poetical
meter and a single rhyme ending. The muwashshah form, which was
utilized by major poets, also emerged as a musical form and survived
as such in North African cities and in the Levant, an area covering
what is known historically as greater Syria and Palestine. In this
area, the muwashshah genre became popular in Aleppo, Syria."
The rhythms below, dawr hindii, muHajjar, murabb`a, samaa'ii darij,
samaa'ii thaqiil,as well as maSmuudii, are used in muwashshat.
The samaa'ii (from an Arabic root "sma", which means to listen --
particularly to music) is a Turkish form of classic music (some say
"old aristocratic Turk music") that has a certain structure of 10 beat
sections and usually ends with a faster set of 6 beat measures. I have
also heard "dawr hindii" called "sheelto" (I don't know whether this is
correct as I've also heard a similar 6 beat rhythm referred to as
sheelto). These rhythms tend to be found more in art music rather than
folk music of the Middle East. I've seen Egyptians refer to dawr
hindii as "andalus" (e.g. Amar Andalus by Mokhtar Al Said).
samaa`ii ath-thaqiil (or Aghr aqSaaq samaa`ii) 10/4
samaa`ii darij (or darj) 6/8 or 3/4
"darj" generally refers to a 6 beat rhythm -- it can have many forms
depending on where you are. 6s tend to be a little straighter
(non-syncopated) in Persia or can swing or syncopate heavily in places
like the Mahgreb. Sometimes, though, it refers to a rhythm in an even
multiple of 2 time (4 or 8) -- I think this is due to the fact that it
is hard to distinguish a 6 beat rhythm from a 2 beat rhythm that is
filled in a syncopated way.
"Dawr" is used in Arab, Persian, and Turkish music lingo; it refers to
a scale or rhythmic cycle that returns to its starting point. "Dawr
Hindi" is first documented in "Ma'refat-e 'elm-e musiqi" an anonymous
work from about the 17th century (probably Persian).
dawr hindii/"Andalus" 7/8
Rhythms that make use of segments(feet) of 3 are known as "aqsaaq" --
it means "broken" or "limping". This type of rhythm is still part of
a lot of traditional Middle Eastern music. The term "aqsaaq" is used
by Turkish musicians (and others) to describe a wide variety of
rhythms counted in groups of 2s and 3s that are not even. Aqsaq
rhythms do not necessarily well fit our western traditions of ratioed
measures -- playing correctly is more about fitting the phrasing and
timing of the song than some mathematical structure.
Several of the rhythms mentioned have been aqsaaq rhythms, including "samaa'ii thaqiil"; here are some more rhythms:
Karsilama means "face-to-face" in Turkish. This 9 beat rhythm is a
popular belly dance beat, and is also used in Turkish and Greek folk
songs (e.g. "Rompi Rompi", "Mastika") and modern Turkish "jazz". The
rhythm is grouped as 2+2+2+3 or can be counted in two uneven groups of
3 (slow-then-fast) 1 2 3 123. This 9-beat aqsaaq rhythm is so popular
it is sometimes simple called "aqsaaq".
Some Turkish songs are grouped 2+2+3+2, (e.g. Dere Giliyor Dere)
but a very similar pattern is used with only a slight change of emphasis.
The 7th eighth-note in this case is a pickup/chain/bridge into the important
accent on 8 (rather than on the 7). Usually this difference can be heard
in the melody.
Curcuna (JOOR-joon-nuh -- the Turkish "C" is a sound like an english
"j" or "ch") is an Armenian rhythm (I've also heard it in Afgani tunes
-- often times nearly straightened to a 6). It is a 10 rhythm being
grouped 3+2+2+3. When played it can almost sound like ayyuub (a 2)
with just a bit more space in it -- or like a 6 beat rhythm. It is not
even -- it has a bit of syncopation which is hard to describe. If you
think of it long-short-short-long you'll probably get it. Be careful
not to "straighten it out" into a 2 or a 6. I have sometimes heard the
rhythm called "Nubar" -- probably because it is used for the song
"Nubar Nubar". Arabic speaking non-Armenians probably call it
"jurjina" which if you are Egyptian probably comes out "gurgina".
|[MIDI]|| 2+2+2+3 variation of above|
There are basically two ways used to form a simple 7-beat rhythm:
either 2+2+3 or 3+2+2. I already mentioned "dawr hindii" which is a
3+2+2. In Greece and Turkey the 223's are generally known as "laz" or
"laz bar" and the 322's as "kalamantiano" (Kalamata is a port in south
Greece). Both forms are used for various folk line dances and songs.
Another Greek rhythm is called "zeybek" and is used in "zeymbekiko" music.
Zembekiko is a popular (traditional) Greek solo dance for men -- I
have heard it described as "a guy dancing around a glass of ouzo on
the floor looking like he's rolling dice" (this description is perhaps
Samra sent me a description from a Greek folk dance teacher:
...Zembekiko was born from Rembetika and came out of the war periods
(20's - 40's). It was a way for people to express their pain - the
songs then were all about hardship, poverty, loss, etc. (Now they are
mostly songs about love songs - usually loss in love). The dance is
traditionally done solo, usually with a hunched stance and often with
a smoke in one hand and a drink in the other, representing the sorrow
they feel and the fact that they're drowning it in drink.
It's an improvised dance. There are no set steps, it's a set
style. Big leg kicks, lots of swaying, often low to the ground, arms
outstretched and in a hunched stance, head bowed and eyes to the
ground. Generally known as 'the drunk man's dance' among Greek people,
but according to Mary this is erroneous. It comes from the history of
Zembekiko (see above), but of course one does not need to be drunk to
do it. ... It's not an ancient dance like other folk dances. It's like
the blues of Greek dancing.
Apparently the Zeymbekiko is somewhat older than that -- Mantos Garlofis mentions more about it in his letter to me.
This is a 9-beat rhythm with a completely different feel than the
Karsilama we discussed previously. It is grouped 4+4+1 and is usually
much slower that the 9 of Karsilama -- perhaps it sounds more like 8
very spacey measures of 2 or 4 beats plus a half measure. As written
here it is fundamentally two measures of a 4 beat phrase (similar to
the basic waHiidaa) followed by a single beat -- however, in practice
it is much more important that the beats match the music being
played. The "extra beat" can be used by a good dancer to add
particularly noticeable accents to a dance arrangement.
Examine the second variation below (which a Greek correspondent
tells me is typical of the modern form), notice that it is similar
to 2 repeats of a maqsum rhythm plus 1 extra beat.
Another family of Greek rhythms is the Tsamikos. They are approximately
a 3 or 6-beat rhythm and are not "even"; they feel "slow-quick-quick".
It is important to match the rhythm of the music -- perhaps sometimes
they sound like "long 2s" or "short 7s".
tsamiko 6/8 or 3/4
For more information about these rhythms and a bunch of other Greek
rhythms look at a letter that Manthos
Garlofis wrote me about Greek rhythms.
Further east, the music of the Mahgreb (Morocco, Tunisia) and
Andalusia have been greatly affected by Arabic influences. Modern
Spain still has remnants of Arabic influences despite a reaction to
purge as much Moorish culture from the region as possible after the
Moors were driven from the country. The flamenco rhythm tradition
partially grew upon roots of Arabic tradition and the nuba is still
considered primarily "Andalusian" although it is also a part of the
traditional classical music of most of north Africa.
Here are some rhythms that are traditionally used in this form of Andalusian
musical presentation known as "nubaat". Each section of a nuba
contains some number of songs that share one of these rhythms and are
played without break (or sometimes with a brief taaqasiim).
BasiiT sort of has the feel of a bolero or rhumba, but in 6. I suspect
that they are related somewhere in the distant past in the blending of
Arabic tradition. Quddaam, although written as a 3 often comes out (at
least in songs I've heard) sounding like a 2 or a 4 -- especially when
it gets fast (and it does). This may be the effect of a
"modernization" of Andalusian music.
basiiT 6/4 or 12/8
bTaa'iHii 8/4 or 8/8
qayIm wa niSf 8/4 or 8/8
quddaam 3/4 or 6/8
khlaS or makhlaS 3/8
|[MIDI]||3+2+3 Touma writes it this way (rotated?)|
"sha'bia" is a Moroccan polyrhythm (unusual in Middle Eastern music --
and hardly a polyrhythm by the standards of continental African
rhythm) played on at least two drums. The 6 beat rhythm is supposed to
represent "heart" and the 12 "lung".
sha'bia 6/8x2 and 12/8
This is a bit "unnatural sounding" to the western ear since the most
specific accent is not at the start of the measure. Although even
some Moroccan music seems to rotate it so that the "one" is on a
Here is another version (according to Hassan Erraji and Salah
sha'bia 6/8x2 and 12/8
|[MIDI]||6 part (darabuka - heart)|
Apparently Persian music has lost a lot of the more varied rhythmic modes that are mentioned in historical works written during the height of the Persian and Arabic empires. Today most (fixed-rhythm) Persian
rhythmic modes are fairly simple 2s, 4s, 6s, or 8s. In Persia there is still a (fading) classical tradition for music and song that has no western sense of fixed measure but is based on a loose poetic
Modern (and probably much older) Persian music focuses a lot on melodic and rhythmic improvisation -- primarily on the stringed "tar".
A tar is a skin covered string instrument similar to (and probably the ancestor of) the oud. The Persian version of the globet shaped drum
is called a "Zarb", "Tombak", "Dombak" -- it is one of the most subtle
and interesting Middle Eastern percussion instruments -- it is
probably fairly modern as it starts to appear in artistic
representations of musicians in the 19th century. Zarbists make a
wide variety of sounds using complex finger technique on the head of
the drum and also by tapping and scraping rings on the corrugated side
of the drum -- playing along with the stringed instruments during
fixed measure sections -- and also improvising drum solos.
The instrument has become popular in recent years due to a few
revolutionary players in the middle part of the 20th century,
including the esteemed Hosain Tehrani. For more information on the
tombak, tombak players, and Iranian music check out The Tombak Network.
Awfar is one of the five fundamental patterns documented in a 17th
century Persian work. I don't know if it describes the rhythm as
Mukhammas is a form of five line Persian verse. Presumably this rhythm
accompanies a vocal or musical form of this poetry.
Persia / Sufi
Check out Peyman's comments on rhythms used on the daf(frame drum) in Persian Sufi music
at this site http://rhythmweb.com/frame/sufi_daf.htm.
Of course the rhythms can also be played on other instruments.
Many of these rhythms are rather syncopated in practice. It's very
difficult to get the nuance or "feel" of the rhythm just by reading the musical
notation or by listening to an perfectly counted MIDI sample (there
are some live samples at the site above).
Balkan musicians have a pulse-based system in which they will first
categorize a rhythm based on the number of strong beats or pulses in
the cycle. Then particular pulses that are accented and pulses that
are longer or shorter than the rest are noted.
For instance a rhythm like "dajchovo", which is fundamentally the same
as the 9 beat karsilama, might be counted as a "4 with a long 4th".
The fill TEKs at the end (since they are not fundamental) are often
1 2 3 4(long)
Another "nine" called "Grantchasko" (used in the song "Sto Me Je
Mile Em Drago"), has a "long 2" (I think Grantchasko means "potter"):
1 2long 3 4
Or, a more complicated rhythm, "sandasko" is counted a "10 with a long
4 and long 8". A western musician would probably consider this a 22
beat rhythm with a very slightly shortened 9 and 11. A Bulgarian
musician would probably break it into 2 phrases: 10=6+4 (or 22=13+9,
if you are using a western system -- even so the rhythm sounds
22=9+9+4 to a western ear). Hard to explain, no?
1 2 3 4+ 5 6 7 8+ 9 10
Here are a few more:
sedi donka 25/16=7+7+11
Break Sedi Donka down like this: two 7s=3+2+2 (like the Greek
Kalamantiano) and then an 11 or "5 with a long 3". Notice how you
could wrap the rhythm around the measure break and it would have 3
repeating segments followed by a bit of couple of beats "at the end".
|<-real start |<- real end
1----- 1----- 1----- ***
|<-but it might sound like it starts here
be careful though, the placement of the beginning of the rhythm cycle
is important to fitting in to the music and ornamenting or accenting
the rhythm. This type of pattern (where it sounds to the western ear
like the end of the cycle seems to wrap into the beginning of the
next) is common in Balkan rhythms.
The Balkan 7 that is phrased 2+2+3 (similar to the Greek "laz") is called
The Balkan 7 that is phrased 3+2+2 (similar to the Greek
"kalamentiano") may be called "lesnoto" -- which is usually used for
the name of a dance (or family of dances) to a slow-quick-quick
rhythm or "chetvorno".
However, just looking at the count will not give you a good indication
of how to play these rhythms -- they really have to fit the style of
Many tunes are in measures of 2 with a tendency to use triplets to
fill the rhythm -- so they may sound or count more like 6s. We find
this in a similar but probably unrelated way in music in the Mahgreb.
or in the same time as above but filled as if in 6 (i.e. sounds like a
6 but is really a 2).
Other 2s are relatively straight and non-syncopated, such as "triti
puti" which is similar to "ayyuub":
triti puti 2/4
Neda Voda is a song that was brought from Macedonia by a musician who
heard this song being played in a train station by the locals. This is
the rhythm that goes with it. It is rather pleasant 11 beat rhythm.
Here is some notation I found on the web for a dance:
neda voda 11/8
Yemen has a strong academic music tradition. In a sort of cultural
conservatism they have retained much of the early Arabic music
influences based on poetic meter. Here are some rhythms from Yemen
that are traditional.
das'a kabIr 11/8
das'a mutawassit/medium das'a 7/8
das'a saghIr/fast or split das'a 7/8
Darb al-wasta/medium wasta 4/4
Darb as-sarI'/fast wasta 4/4
Adoni might be considered a wasta:
Q: So where are more rhythms? Rhythm Collection
I notice there is a tendency for beginning drummers to want to
quickly "collect" as many rhythms as they can. (Hey, I did it too.)
Let me point out that it is not the number of rhythms you can play,
it's more about being able to communicate clearly with the
vocabulary you have. Some of the "best" Middle Eastern drummers
usually play only a couple of rhythms. Most songs are to basic
rhythms of 2, 4, 6 or 8. The art of Middle Eastern drumming is in
doing the most with what you have -- playing perfectly and precisely
-- ornamenting the rhythm appropriately -- making all of the sounds
that your instrument can make pleasingly.
Okay, that said: here is a list of a whole
bunch of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean rhythms.
Q: What's the earliest documented rhythm?A Brief Analysis of Historical Sources
Here is a page with some historical
artistic representations of various Middle Eastern drums.
Here is a page with notes for a class I taught on
documenting rhythmic modes in pre-1600 Middle Eastern music.
One of the earliest surviving sources on Middle Eastern music theory
is the "Kitab al-Aghani" (Book of Songs) by "Abu al-Faraj Ali of
Esfahan"; it was written in the early 10th century -- unfortunately
the technical sections on music and rhythm theory are completely in
In the 13th century, SafI-al-DIn wrote two books, apparently about 50
years apart: the "Kitaab al-adwaar" and "Risaala al-sharafiyya". These
texts contain a great deal of technical information on musical theory
and are practically the only such sources available until much later
in history. He is apparently the first to use the term "dawr" to refer
to the rhythmic cycle and the first to discuss it in any depth.
In "Kitaab al-adwaar" chapter 13 is devoted to rhythmic modes.
SafI-al-DIn lists eight rhythmic modes with variations. The "Risaala"
also mentions seven of the same rhythms and adds another. The way he
describes the rhythms is in terms of segments (feet) of long and short
syllables. He notes that some beats may optionally be played,
presumably at the discretion of the musician, and others are fixed.
There is little or no evidence about how these rhythms were applied
specifically to percussion instruments.
In "Kitaab" he gives a "basis" for each rhythm (al-aSl) but this was
probably based on his own form of analysis rather than common practice
since it seems of limited use and he later seems to deprecate the
notion in "Risaala". Notice the variations mentioned between the two
works have very different basic cycle lengths. For the cycles that
are even-divisions or multiples of each other one might imagine that
the short rhythm is simply stretched by a factor of two to fill the
space. There are many cases where his rhythm notations for song
examples don't add up. Part of this seems to be the habit of not
specifically mentioning the length of a note when it is a repeated
note of the same tone as the previous. This makes it nearly
impossible to reconstruct his examples with any (rhythmic) accuracy
and leads one to suspect we may not be able to interpret any of the
modes with certainty.
Here are the rhythmic modes he mentions (pay no attention to the
distribution of notes versus rests -- it was not Safi-al-Din's -- I've
had to make it at least plausible to render in modern notation):
al-thaqiil al-awwal 16/8=3+3+4+2+4
al-thaqiil al-thaanii 16/8=3+3+2+3+3+2
al-thaqiil al-thaanii 8/8
khafiif al-thaqiil 16/8=2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2
khafiif al-thaqiil 2/4=2+2
thaqiil al-ramal 20/8=4+4+2+2+2+2+2+2+4
|[MIDI]||Safii al_Diin Kitaab al-adwaar; |
|[MIDI]||Safii al-Diin; Kitaab al-adwaar; also Risaala al-sharafiyya |
khafiif al-ramal 10/8=2+3+2+3
khafiif al-ramal 12/8=2+4+2+4
|[MIDI]||al-aSl; Safii al-Diin Kitaab al-adwaar; |
khafiif al-ramal 6/8=2+4
muDaa`af al-ramal 24/8
|[MIDI]||Risaala al-sharafiyya version|
|[MIDI]||Risaala al-sharafiyya version|
|[MIDI]||Risaala al-sharafiyya version|
|[MIDI]||Risaala al-sharafiyya variation in 28|
|[MIDI]||Risaala al-sharafiyya variation in 28|
Q: Where else can I read about Middle Eastern rhythm history? ( Bibliography )
Check the bibliography of my notes for a class I taught on
documenting rhythmic modes in pre-1600 Middle Eastern music.
Here's a bibliography from the Encyclopedia Britannica.
If you primarily read English (like me), you are not going to find much on
this subject. Henry George Farmer has a number of books on Arabic
music history and theory (some of them in English). He does not
present much about rhythm -- as I mentioned there is apparently not a
lot to find.
Jean During (a modern westerner who studies traditional Persian music)
has written about Persian music theory in both English and French.
"The Art of Persian Music" is sort of a coffee table book but contains
a bit of interest about Persian rhythm tradition as well as good
overview of Persian music.
There is a book "The Music of the Arabs" by Habib Hassan Touma -- he
includes some rhythmic mode definitions, although I'm leery about a
few of his rhythmic notations. He also includes historical notes
about music development.
The Modal System of Arab and Persian Music AD 1250-1300(O. Wright,
1978) has a brief analysis on what is to be found about rhythmic modes
in historical works from 13th century. Also it has a mind-numbing
amount of analysis of melodical modes, if you are into that sort of
thing. Interesting note: I've seen references to Persian translations
of this book referenced by Persian authors writing about Persian
Reading French may help in studying first sources as Rodolphe von
Erlanger translated many parts of historical works in Arabic in his
many volumed "La Musique Arabe".
Herman Rechberger is a Finn who studies Arabic music (speaks Arabic)
and has apparently traveled a good deal in the Middle East has a web version of
his book on Arabic rhythmic modes here -- it is very interesting,
however I find the rhythmic notation on the web page almost impossible
to read. This is corrected in the hard copy of the book (which I have
finally managed to get) and he also adds fixed space textual notation
(possibly inspired by this page and e-conversing with me), and a
couple of short discussions of the rhythmic mode usage in a couple of
classical musical families.
Here are a few web links:
If you do find any good sources, do let me know!